Unexpected Find at the Library

This year I am joining the 52 ancestors in 52 weeks series of prompts from Amy Johnson Crow. This week’s prompt was ‘at the library’. The last time I went to the library (for genealogical purposes), it was to look a book called ‘Honderd jaar zingen: Van Lofstem tot Exultate Deo’ [A hundred years of singing: From Lofstem to Exultate Deo] by J.M. Sloof.

It’s a book by local historian J.M. Sloof. Mr. Sloof has written (and is still writing) a lot of books about Voorschoten and its history. Several of my family lines lived in Voorschoten for a long time, others only came to Voorschoten a few generations ago. Either way, there’s a good chance to find a relative of mine in whatever book written by J.M. Sloof. In this case, the book is about the choral society, which used to be called Lofstem and now still exists under the name Exultate Deo. It was founded in 1882.

I originally borrowed this book from the library because I was fairly certain I would find information on some of my grandmother’s sisters in there – I knew they had been involved with the choir. And indeed, I found the information, including several pictures. However, there was one bit of information I hadn’t expected.

 

How did they meet?

Do you ever wonder how some of your ancestors met? Often times we can find their marriage date, sometimes even an engagement notice in the newspaper. But how often do we know how they met? Living near each other is just about the best reason for meeting each other we can often find. The same goes for Lodewijk Wesselo and his wife Elisabeth Lubach. I know the approximate time they got engaged and I know their marriage date. How they met, aside from both of them living in Voorschoten? I didn’t know.

Now, thanks to the book I borrowed from the library, I might speculate. An interesting fact appeared as I read the book. In 1894, mister L. Wesselo was secretary of the choral society.(1) I knew he liked singing, there are several letters in the Wesselo archive where he makes a remark about singing.(2) During that same year, the second secretary was mister B. Lubach.(1)

I am not quite sure how he is connected to Elisabeth – it might be a brother or a cousing, or even an uncle. Either way, it’s probably through this person that Lodewijk met Elisabeth. Maybe the two families were friends. Maybe because they worked together Lodewijk went to B. Lubach’s house and Elisabeth was there. I can imagine their eyes meeting, a spark, and visits from Lodewijk to B. Lubach increasing…

I still need to figure out who B. Lubach was – and it is not a high priority, I’ll admit – but it was a nice surprise to find.

 

Sources:

  1. Sloof, J.M., Honderd jaar zingen: Van Lofstem tot Exultate Deo [A hundred years of singing: From Lofstem to Exultate Deo] (Alphen aan den Rijn : Vis, 1982), 22.
  2. Letters from Lodewijk Wesselo, portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, Familiearchieven: CBG, fa 00472, CBG, Den Haag.
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Are We Really Alike?

This year I am joining the 52 ancestors in 52 weeks series of prompts from Amy Johnson Crow. This week’s prompt was ‘I’d like to meet’. To answer the question of which ancestor I would like to meet isn’t easy. There are so many ancestors I would like to sit down with and talk to. To ask the questions that records cannot answer for me. To get to know them. To be able to tell their story better. But if I had to really pick one and only one, I would like to meet my great-grandmother Sophia Zbieszczyk.

Sophia is my maternal grandfather’s mother. My grandfather passed away when I was two years old, so I never really knew him. However, he did know me and told my mother how much I reminded him of his mother, Sophia. I cannot help but wonder how much we really would have in common. So I’d love to sit down with her, get to know her, and see if we share personality traits.

Not to mention all the questions I want to ask her about herself and her family. Is there really a Russian connection somewhere in that line? Why did my great-grandfather and her move to the other side of Germany. How was life when she was a little girl? What was it like to live through World War One? So many questions and unfortunately I can never ask her. All I can do is hope to find some of the answers in the records she and her contemporaries left behind.

The Meaning of Knura

This year I am joining the 52 ancestors in 52 weeks series of prompts from Amy Johnson Crow. This week’s prompt was ‘unusual name’. When it comes to unusual last names in my family, my maternal grandfather’s name Knura definitely counts. In 2007, there were only 8 people with the name Knura in the Netherlands.(1) I’m related to all of them, by my count of family members with the name Knura. So it is fairly easy to search for Knura in Dutch archives and find records about my own family – if there are any records to find.

But however rare it is here, when you cross the border, it becomes a lot more common. As far as I know, Knura is a common Polish name and a lot of Polish people moved to Germany in the 20th century. Therefore, Knura is pretty common in (certain parts of) Germany nowadays too. Searching for Knura there should lead to many more records, a lot which probably aren’t about my family. Location is everything in this case.

 

One thing that I do wonder, and haven’t been able to find out yet, is what the name means. Where does it come from? Is it a geographical based family name, or was it once a property? Does it have -anything to do with a profession? Or something else? With a free Polish-English dictionary, I’ve found that knur means knout, which according to an English dictionary is a whip with a lash of leather thongs, formerly used in Russia for flogging criminals. Could it be that Knura is connected to that as a profession?

ordinary_knout

1. Man using a knout.

I find that connection to Russia very interesting, especially considering a family tale that there is some Russian blood somewhere in the family. Though that that was supposed to be on my grandfather’s mother’s side, not his father’s side. Still, there might be a kernel of truth in there somewhere…

On the other hand, if I put knur in Google’s image search as a search term, I get a lot of picture of pigs. Maybe it has something to do with keeping pigs? The Knura family were farmers, so it could very well have something to do with that. Although it’s a lot less interesting than the Russian connection, it might be a lot more logical.

 

Sources:

  1. Nederlandse Familienamenbank, CBG, (http://www.cbgfamilienamen.nl/nfb/: accessed 19 January 2019), search term: Knura.

 

Picture credit

  1. From Voyage en Sibérie fait par ordre du Roi en 1761, Abbé Chape d’Auteroche, Description des supplices. Available from a site of Congress Library and public domain (see here).

The Joys and Challenges of Previous Research

This year I am joining the 52 ancestors in 52 weeks series of prompts from Amy Johnson Crow. This week’s prompt was ‘challenge’. When it comes to genealogy, I find there are many challenges. I could write about the challenge of having too little time to do research (don’t we all have this problem?) or about the challenge of crossing borders with our research. But I decided to write about something a little closer to home – the challenge of finding a fairly complete genealogy of a branch of your family…without any sources.

 

A treasure trove with shaky foundations

Aside from starting with yourself and checking in your family for any documents and information, one of the first steps of genealogy guides is always to check what has been done already. Did anyone research your family and thus done some of the work? For my family, the answer is yes several times over.

The website ‘Genealogie website van Jan Correljé’ contains information several of my ancestral lines. The first line it contains information about is my great-grandfather Barend Cornelis Bolle and his ancestors, going back ten generations to end with Cornelis Bolle, born around 1570 in Burgh-Haamstede (province: Zeeland). The line of Barend Cornelis Bolle’s wife Alida Petronella Wesselo has had a whole host of genealogists that did research and all of that research has been published on the website of Jan Correljé as well. Counting back from Alida Petronella Wesselo, there are another five generations, ending with Johannes Vesselo, born before 1720.

It doesn’t end there. Alida Petronella’s mother is Alida Petronella van Grasstek. This too is a line that has been researched extensively by multiple people. Counting from Alida Petronella van Grasstek, the line is documented seven generations back, ending with Lodewijck (Thomaszoon) van Gresteck, born around 1585 in Monsjou ’Monschau’ (Germany). It is not just published on the site of Jan Correljé, but also on website ‘van Grasstek genealogie’.

The mother of Barend Cornelis Bolle is Geertruida Takken and her line is published on the website of Jan Correljé as well, going back six generations. It end with Rijck Tacken, nothing else is know about him, only a name.

The husband of Geertruida Takken is Gerrit Bolle. His mother is Maria Willemina/Wilhelmina van der Baars. I’ve found a published genealogy of her family line as well, it goes back two generations, to Willem van der Baars and his wife Maria den Boer. Considering their first son was baptised in 1790, they were born around 1770, I would say.

Then, on the side of another great-grandfather, Salomon Mulder, not much research has been done. The only exception is for his wife, Adriana Versloot. I’ve found three different sites with a published genealogy of her father’s line. Counting from Adriana, these genealogies bring me back nine generations to a Jan Versloot, who has at least one son born in 1638.

The challenge with all of this is that most of these genealogies have no sources at all. The van Grasstek website has some sources, the website of Jan Correljé also has a few, but it’s far from complete.

 

Spot checks and in depth work

I’ve done spot checks on these genealogies and so far they seem to all be correct. However, these spot checks are nowhere near enough to prove these genealogies according to the GPS. Checking some of these will be quite a challenge – especially the Bolle line, as almost all of them lived in Zeeland and there’s a gap in the records of the 18th century due to the loss of records. It is possible to breach this gap, but it takes a lot more work.

I have taken on this challenge, though. I am currently working on the Wesselo line, adding to the body of work already there by writing biographies and at the same time I am doing the work according to the GPS. But the added challenge is that dreaded time… Too many ancestors, too little time. But isn’t that always the challenge in the end?

 

Websites named in this post:

Genealogie website van Jan Correljé

Van Grasstek genealogie

Published genealogy Maria Willemina/Wilhelmina van der Baars

Research Versloot line – site 1; site 2; site 3

Time for a Tune Up!

The start of the year brought about the one year anniversary of my blog. It coincided with a new blog party with the theme of tuning up your blog. So I got to work doing some tuning up and analyzing, as I thought it was a perfect moment to do this.

nl-hana_2.24.14.02_0_252-1033

1. An engine driver doing maintenance on a locomotive.

A Little Tune Up

I started with updating the About Me page. I added a more concise introduction to myself and my blog. I kept the history of this blog and my previous blog, but shifted it down on the page. I also updated my Contact page to include a privacy policy.

Another tune up was for my tagline. Instead of “The stories of my ancestors” I changed it to “Bringing the stories of my ancestors alive again”, which embodies what I try to do with my family history research much better in my opinion.

Last, but not least, I added a Biographies page. For now, this holds the (a little later than planned) re-release of my biography about Lodewijk Wesselo (1875-1962), my great-uncle. I will add more biographies as I write them. And in the future, probably also (links to) brief character sketches (which are less involved than full biographies and thus shorter).

Analysis

On the blog party post, Elizabeth O’Neal talks a bit about analysing your blog for ease of use and find-ability by (among others) cousins. Honestly, while I like being found, especially by cousins, I’m not particularly going out of my way to optimize being found. I’m thankful to have the time to blog at all, let alone go out of my way to optimize my SEO score or anything like that.

So it wasn’t a surprise to me that when I analysed my blog with https://www.seoptimer.com, it reported that my SEO could be better. Still, I’m glad I did the analysis, especially considering it found one broken link – for the blog party button that links back to My Descendant’s Ancestors of all places! Don’t worry, I fixed it.

Still, I am not unsatisfied with how well I can be found. If I type in my grandfathers name in Google, one of my blog posts is the fifth link on the first page of results. Searching for Jan Jerphaas with Google, my blog is the 6th link on the first page of results. My great-grandfather Salomon Mulder doesn’t give me any hits on the first page for my blog, but then it’s a very common name. His wife Adriana Versloot has the same issue. I do wonder how well I would score if I write more posts about them. Would it will get me higher in the search results?

Either way, for someone who’s not going out of her way to get noticed by Google, two out of three current research projects that are about specific ancestors give me hits on the first page of a Google search. I wonder what the results will be a year from now, if I have more blog posts?

I Write Like…

Just for fun, I analysed two of my favourite posts from last year with I Write Like, which checks which famous writer you write like. For The Depths of Winter and War the site told me I wrote like Sir Arthur Clarke. For Stories yet to Be Discovered I apparently wrote like Dan Brown. That’s not bad at all ;).

All in all, I am pretty happy with my tune up!

 

Photo credit:

  1. Willem van de Poll, [onbekend], National Archives of the Netherlands / Fotocollectie Van de Poll, CC0

The First Time I Had Conflicting Evidence

This year I am joining the 52 ancestors in 52 weeks series of prompts from Amy Johnson Crow. This week’s prompt was ‘first’. Considering that I have once again made the biography of Lodewijk Wesselo that I wrote available (see the Biographies page), this prompt brought to mind the very first time I encountered a piece of conflicting evidence.

 

Drawing Lots

In the Netherlands we have had conscription since 1810, when the Kingdom of Holland became a part of the French Empire.[1] The rules surrounding the conscription have changed several times, but suffice to say that in the time that Lodewijk Wesselo every man that was twenty years or older could be called to serve. In the period where Lodewijk reached the eligible age, this was the procedure for drawing lots: in January of the year in which a man turned 19 he had to register in the place where his parents lived (even if he wasn’t living there himself). On December 31st the register was closed and then the actual drawing of lots was done between 7 February and 7 March – which would then be in the year a man turned 20. For Lodewijk the registering would have been done in 1894, and the drawing of lots in 1895, as he was born 22 December 1875.[2, 3]

If your number was drawn, you would have to serve. There were several ways you could be absolved, but Lodewijk himself wrote in an autobiographical sketch of his life: Op 20 jarige leeftijd mocht hij, vrij geloot van de militaire dienst, zich verloven met Elizabeth Lubach.” [4] (Translation: At age 20, absolved of conscription into the military, he was allowed to engage himself to Elisabeth Lubach.) In a postcard to his brother Lodewijk writes: “Morgen 19/10 is het 51 jaar dat ik met Lamboy in Leidschendam vrijloten voor de militaire dienst.”[5] (Translation: Tomorrow 19/10 it is 51 years ago that I was absolved of military service in Leidschendam, together with Lamboy.) From these sources we know that Lodewijk was eligible to serve, but his lot number wasn’t drawn.

nl-hana_2.24.01.05_0_933-8237

1. Conscripts reporting for the mobilisation exercise ‘Donderslag 17’ in Ermelo, 25 November 1986


Conflict

The conflict comes from the fact that if you calculate the dates that the drawing of lots would have happened from these sources, they don’t match up! The autobiographical sketch concurs with the historical date of 1895. Lodewijk got engaged to Elisabeth Lubach when he was 20 years old, according to this source, which would make it the end of 1895 at the earliest (after his 22 December birthday) and 1896 at the latest. So an 1895 drawing of lots date fits with this sequence of events.

However, the postcard gives a different date. It is dated 18 October 1949, so the tomorrow 19/10 mentioned would be 19 October. Fifty years ago makes the date 19 October 1898. That’s a three year difference, and a conflict I needed to solve. While this date is still one year before his wedding with Elizabeth, so theoretically it’s possible he got engaged to her after this date.[6] However, it contradicts the normal sequence of events surrounding the drawing of lots, which was arranged by law. That made me suspect this date was wrong.

Another thing that made me suspect this particular date is Lodewijk’s memory. A letter written by him on 22 January 1952 – a little over three years later – in which he congratulates his brother with his 58th birthday and apologizes for being late, seeing as he’d forgotten.[7] That’s not the only thing he’s forgotten – his brother turned 68 that year! So that’s a clue that maybe Lodewijk is getting a bit shaky in reliability when it comes to dates.

 

Solving the Conflict

In this case, the best thing to do would be to go to the original source that was used to register eligible men and where the drawing of lots was recorded, the ‘militie-registers’ [militia records]. In the register of 1895, we find Lodewijk Wesselo’s entry, as well as Adrianus Cornelis Lamboo, the Lamboy he’s talking about when he gives the (completely wrong) date in the 1949 letter.[8] 14 December 1894 is the date for all the men in the column “decision”, along with notes like “free – brother service” (for Adrianus Cornelis Lamboo) and Lodewijk has the note “accepted or absolved” there. So that’s the decision of whether they were eligible for service or not. According to the historical information, the actual drawing of lots would then have been between 7 February 1895 and 7 March 1895. Since there are no further notes in the columns dealing with which military department someone who was accepted was stationed at and which date they were done with their service for Lodewijk, it’s clear he was indeed absolved when the lots were drawn in early 1895. For completeness sake I also searched for Lodewijk in the 1898 militia records, and didn’t find him there.

Another possible source could have been the prove of absolution or service that every man had to hand over at the time of his marriage. It’s found the marriage appendix. Unfortunately, in the province Zuid-Holland the only marriage appendixes that have survived are those of the period 1812-1842. Lodewijk was married in 1899, so there’s no appendix in which we can find the date of his absolution.

All three sources answered my research question of ‘when was Lodewijk Wesselo’s lot number drawn (or not drawn in this case)?’ directly, albeit not all in the same detail. I used the laws at the time and two original sources, both with direct evidence, to support my conclusion that the date of the postcard – an original source with direct evidence – was wrong, together with my analysis of these records and the pattern of Lodewijk’s memory for dates shown in these records and one other record. So in the end, I decided to discount the postcard, as it seems to have the completely wrong date, and go with the early 1895 date.

This post is an rewrite of a blog post previously published on my former blog Tracing My Roots. It was adapted and updated from the original version that was titled ‘My Very First Piece of Conflicting Evidence’. The post date is unknown but would have probably been somewhere in 2012.

 

Photo credit:

  1. Rob Bogaerts, National Archives of the Netherlands / Anefo, CC0

Sources:

  1. “Geschiedenis van de dienstplicht”,  IsGeschiedenis (https://isgeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/geschiedenis-van-de-dienstplicht : accessed 5 January 2019).
  2. Geschiedenis van de archiefvormer, Archiefvorming, “Militieregisters ZH – Zoeken: 3.02.25”,  Nationaal Archief  (http://www.gahetna.nl/collectie/archief/ead/index/zoekterm/3.02.25/eadid/3.02.25/wollig/uit/volledige-tekst/aan/gebruikersinbreng/aan : accessed 5 January 2019).
  3. Voorschoten, Zuid-Holland, “Burgerlijke Stand geboorte-register” [Civil Registration Birth Register], 1875, no. 85, “Lodewijk” son of Hendrik Wesselo and his wife Alida Petronella van Grasstek; Regionaal Archief Leiden, Leiden, Zuid-Holland; digital image, “Zoek op personen,” Regionaal Archief Leiden, Regionaal Archief Leiden Home (http://www.archiefleiden.nl/home/collecties/personen/zoek-op-personen : accessed 22 December 2012). Searchterm used: Lodewijk Wesselo.
  4. Lodewijk Wesselo, Brief Biographical Sketch, manuscript, 1947; portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, familiearchieven: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, fa 00472, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, Den Haag, Zuid-Holland.
  5. Lodewijk Wesselo (Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland) to “A.B. Wesselo” [Abraham Bernardus Wesselo], postcard, 14 October 1949; portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo; familiearchieven: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, fa 00472; Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie (CBG), Den Haag, Zuid-Holland.
  6. Voorschoten, Zuid-Holland, “Burgerlijke Stand huwelijks-register” [Civil Registration Marriage Register], 1899, no. 11, Lodewijk Wesselo and Elisabeth Lubach; Regionaal Archief Leiden, Leiden, Zuid-Holland; digital image, “Zoek op personen,” Regionaal Archief Leiden, Regionaal Archief Leiden Home (http://www.archiefleiden.nl/home/collecties/personen/zoek-op-personen : accessed 22 December 2012). Searchterm used: Elisabeth Lubach.
  7. Lodewijk Wesselo (Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland) to “Bram” [Abraham Bernardus Wesselo], letter, 22 January 1952; portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo; familiearchieven: Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, fa 00472; Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie (CBG), Den Haag, Zuid-Holland.
  8. Militieregisters Zuid-Holland [Militia Registers Zuid-Holland], 1881-1941, inventarisnummer 394, nummer toegang 3.02.25, entry “Lodewijk Wesselo” under the town Voorschoten; Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Zuid-Holland.

Note about sources from the archives of Voorschoten: in the time I did this research these archives were held by the Regionaal Archief Leiden in Leiden. Since then they have been moved to the combined city archive of Wassenaar and Voorschoten in Wassenaar.

Indirect Evidence for an Illness

Just because something isn’t named explicitly, doesn’t mean we cannot identify it. All it takes is reading between the lines, taking the indirect evidence that we do have, and drawing logical conclusions from it. Back in 2012 I was researching Lodewijk Wesselo, one of my great-uncles. It was then that I first had a conclusion that completely relied on indirect evidence.

The Case

During the early 1940s Lodewijk Wesselo had an illness. There’s no medical information available for this, merely mentions he makes himself in various letters written in 1944. And in those letters, he doesn’t explicitly states what illness he has. All I had were fragmentary comments that describe symptoms and sometimes treatments.

A. “Maandag voor 8 dagen voor het laatst bestraald vermoedelijk eind dezer maand naar Adam voor onderzoek en dan gaan praten. alsnog maar fluisteren” [1]

(Translation: Monday radiation therapy for 8 days for the last time, probably to Amsterdam at the end of the month for examination and then starting to talk. For now, just whispering.)

B. “30 sept was ik voor controle bij de Radio Dr.. die een klein zweertje ontdekte op de oude geschiedenis, hij achte het nodig dat ik Dr. N daarvan in kennis stelde, die kwam tot dezelfde conclusie maar zei erbij dat hij voor onderzoek een stukje moest weg knippen anders geen zekerheid kan hebben wat het was. Ik heb een paar nare dagen gehad vooral door de vedoving en het binnenkrijgen van het middel. Zelf heb ik het flesje naar het Pathologis Inst. gebracht – en mocht ik van Dr. N. Donderdag vernemen dat het onschuldig was. eind dezer maand weer bij 2 terugkomen. Mijn stem, ik begon al zo aardig te babbelen, is weer geheel weg en moet van meet af aan beginnen. spraakles stop gezet.” [2]

(Translation: 30 September I was with the radiologist for a check-up, who found a small spot. Knowing the old history, he found it necessary that I notify Dr. N., who came to the same conclusion and said he would have to cut off a piece of it for examination or there was no certainty about what it was. I’ve had a few bad days because of the anesthesia and the ingesting of the fluid. Have taken the bottle to the pathological institute myself, and was notified by Dr. N. on Thursday that it was harmless. End of the month I have to see him again. My voice, I had begun to talk pretty well again, is completely gone again and I have to start all over again. I’ve stopped the speech lessons.)

C: “Met mij gaat het heel goed. Wat ten kwade leek heeft God ten goede gekeerd, de oude wond is prachtig en de Heren waren zeer tevreden, ik heb dus geen spijt van die laatste uitknipperij, ga volgende week weer spreekles nemen, ik hoop straks nog mee te kunnen zingen al is het maar een klein versje.” [3]

(Translation: I am doing well. What seemed evil, God has turned to good, the old wound has healed magnificently and the Lord was pleased. I do not regret the last surgery. Next week I will start speech lessons again, I hope to be able to sing along, even if it is only a small verse.)

D. “Zaterdag was ik bij de Spec. en die kon mij genezen verklaren, je begrijpt hoe dankbaar wij zijn met dit heerlijke geschenk. Mijn stem is niet mooi maar aan verbetering wordt niet getwijfelt.” [4]

(Translation: I was at the specialist on Saturday and he could call me cured. You understand how thankful we are for this wonderful gift. My voice is not pretty, but there is no doubt it will improve.)

My Analysis

When quote A is made, the illness is clearly nearing its end. Lodewijk talks about having his last radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for cancer these days. It’s been used as a treatment sinds 1902, though radiation treatment of only the part of the body that was affected has been used since the 1920s. [5] In 1913, the Netherlands Cancer Institute is founded and in 1938, the new policlinic and radiology department is opened.[6] From the letter it is not clear if the radiation therapy itself was in Amsterdam, but considering Lodwijk is also seeing a specialist in Amsterdam, it is likely he was going to the Netherlands Cancer Institute for treatment.

Lodewijk also mentions he’s whispering in quote A. Quote B & C clearly indicate that this condition came through surgery on the throat area. Quote B tells us the most, namely that there is some kind of ‘spot’ on the throat, and that a biopsy is needed to see if it is evil (see quote C) or in other words malignant – due to “old history”. Quote D tells us he is now cured – good news for Lodewijk – and that he was seeing a specialist.

The surgery, radiation therapy, the biopsy on a spot on his throat, the waiting for news on whether it’s malignant or not, the specialist in Amsterdam, it all points to cancer. Throat cancer, to be exact. It’s never explicitly named that, but all the information together makes me pretty confident in calling it that.

 

This post is an rewrite of a blog post previously published on my former blog Tracing My Roots. It was adapted and updated from the original version that was titled ‘Indirect Evidence for an Illness’ posted on 9 November 2012.

Sources:

[1] Handwritten postcard from Lo [Lodewijk Wesselo] to Bram [Abraham Wesselo, his brother], 4 September 1944, portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, Familiearchieven: CBG, fa 00472, CBG, Den Haag.

[2] Handwritten postcard from E. Ant Lo [Elisabeth Lubach (Lodewijk’s wife), Antje Wesselo (Lodewijks daughter) and Lodewijk Wesselo] to Bram x Riek [Abraham Wesselo, and his wife Hendrika Johanna Wilhelmina Broer, his brother and sister-in-law], 10 October 1944, portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, Familiearchieven: CBG, fa 00472, CBG, Den Haag.

[3] Handwritten postcard from E. Ant & Lo [Elisabeth Lubach (Lodewijk’s wife), Antje Wesselo (Lodewijks daughter) and Lodewijk Wesselo] to Bram & Riek [Abraham Wesselo, and his wife Hendrika Johanna Wilhelmina Broer, his brother and sister-in-law], 29 October 1944, portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, Familiearchieven: CBG, fa 00472, CBG, Den Haag.

[4] Handwritten postcard from E. A. L. [Elisabeth Lubach (Lodewijk’s wife), Antje Wesselo (Lodewijks daughter) and Lodewijk Wesselo] to Bram & Riek [Abraham Wesselo, and his wife Hendrika Johanna Wilhelmina Broer, his brother and sister-in-law], 25 December 1944, portfolio 3, doos 1, familiearchief Wesselo, Familiearchieven: CBG, fa 00472, CBG, Den Haag.

[5] “Geschiedenis van de behandeling” page, Behandeling tab, Beter  (http://beternahodgkin.nl/behandeling/geschiedenis-van-de-radiotherapie : accessed 5 January 2019).

[6] “Radiotherapie tijdlijn”,  100 jaar radiotherapie  (https://www.historad.com/nl/#! : accessed 5 January 2019).